Late Classical composers -- a category into which one supposes the brilliant boy Mendelssohn must fall -- regularly had a small but vital choice to make while composing instrumental concert music: does the piece demand a minuet or a scherzo? For his Sinfonia for string orchestra No. 11 in F major of 1823, composed when he was just 14, Felix Mendelssohn boldly defied the tradition that demanded that the choice be made, and simply offered one of both. Thus the piece, which is the second-to-last of Mendelssohn's dozen finished string symphonies (the composer himself never counted the single-movement No. 13 as part of the group), has neither three movements, as most of these boyhood marvels do, nor four, as the Classical standard asks, but five full movements which collectively last well over half an hour. The contrast with the ten-minute No. 10 and the three-movement, fugal No. 12 could hardly be more striking -- here, toward the end of young Felix's line of string symphonies, we observe a variety of structure completely absent at the beginning of the line, where each symphony was from the same three-movement, fast-slow-fast mold.
The plan of the Sinfonia No. 11 does in fact derive from that same fast-slow-fast mold; Mendelssohn has just inserted two digressions, in the shape of the second-movement Scherzo and the fourth-movement Menuetto. Movement 1 begins with an Adagio and then proceeds Allegro molto. The key of F major is set up with wonderful gentleness at the start; violins spin softly, lower strings hover thickly but delicately around them. A surprise is waiting at the beginning of the Allegro molto music, however: a tumultuous minor-mode exercise.
The Scherzo movement is marked Comodo and contains a Schweizerlied (Swiss folk song). The central movement is a rich and confident Adagio that moves into the velvety world of the multi-flat key signature; Mozart might be the starting point, but Mendelssohn does manage to arrive at a destination all his own. The Menuetto that follows is a gracefully urgent sort of Allegro, cast in a serious F minor; the requisite trio section is supplied, fully-developed and brighter in hue.
The Allegro molto fifth movement does not go very far before breaking into a pseudo-fugue. This final movement begins and ends in F minor, and so the sinfonia as a whole is one of those not-uncommon oddities of musical nomenclature: it should rightly be designated a work in F minor, since its meat (i.e. the Allegro molto body of the first movement and the whole of the finale) is entirely of that key, but, because of an introduction that refuses to align itself with the minor mode, the label "F major" has always been affixed to it.
I. Adagio - Allegro molto (0:00)
II. Scherzo. Comodo "Schweizer Lied" (12:26)
III. Adagio (16:50)
IV. Allegro molto (31:06)
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4 лет назад